luns, 12 de novembro de 2012

a máscara, w. b. yeats

'Put off that mask of burning gold
With emerald eyes.'
'O no, my dear, you make so bold
To find if hearts be wild and wise,
And yet not cold.'

'I would not find what's there to find,
Love or deceit.'
'It was the mask engaged your mind,
And after set your heart to beat,
Not what's behind.'

'But lest you are my enemy,
I must enquire.'
'O no, my dear, let all that be;
What matter, so there is but fire
In you, in me?'


'ripa esa máscara de ouro ardente
con ollos de esmeralda.'
'non, meu amor, resulta destemido
que averigües se os corazóns son salvaxes e sabios
mais non fríos.'

'non atoparía o que hai para atopar,
amor ou engano.'
'foi a máscara quen de engaiolarte,
e fixo latexar o teu corazón,
non o que hai detrás.'

'pero por temor a que sexas inimig@,
debo pescudar.'
'non, meu amor, déixao estar;
que importa, se non hai máis que lume
en ti, en min?'

1. w. b. yeats (1865-1939) publicou este poema en 1916 (The Green Helmet and Other Poems).

2. trátase, quizás, dunha conversa entre dous 'amantes' que falan de canto de real ten o que sinten unh@ pol@ outro@; é dicir, hai algo baixo a máscara?, ten que haber algo baixo a máscara?, só existe a máscara?, ...

3. yeats tamén usou máscaras e, quizás, foi consciente de facelo: ocultista, senador, Nobel ou vello verde.

domingo, 11 de novembro de 2012

por que Marx estaba no certo: conclusión

portada da versión orixinal
logo do século xx e a influencia da obra de Karl Marx e o movemento político que naceu dela nese marco temporal, Terry Eagleton repasa a súa conceptualización a principios do século xxi. Why Marx Was Right (2011) artículase arredor de dez "falsos" mitos ou representacións desta doutrina e a súa refutación; máis unha conclusión.

Marx tiña unha fe desmedida no individuo e unha fonda sospeita acerca dos dogmas abstractos. Non perdía o tempo no concepto dunha sociedade perfecta, receaba da noción de igualdade e non soñaba cun futuro no que todos levaramos posta unha funda cos números da seguridade social estampados nas costas. Era a diversidade, non a uniformidade, o que anhelaba ver. Tampouco ensinou que homes e mulleres foran os xoguetes indefensos da historia. Incluso albergaba máis hostilidade cara ao estado que os conservadores de dereitas, e concibía o socialismo como unha afondamento da democracia, non coma o seu inimigo. O seu modelo para unha vida boa baseábase na idea da expresión artística individual. Cría que algunhas revolucións poderían lograrse por métodos pacíficos e, de ningún xeito, se opuña á reforma social. Non se centrou dun xeito reducionista na clase traballadora manual. Tampouco concibía a sociedade en termos de dúas clases asperamente polarizadas.

para el a produción natural non era un fetiche. Pola contra, cría que deberiamos desfacernos dela tan cedo como fose posible. O seu ideal era o lecer, non o traballo. Se prestou atención de xeito persistente ao económico, foi para diminuír a súa influencia sobre a humanidade. O seu materialismo era totalmente compatible con conviccións morais e espirituais fondamente asentadas. Non aforrou parabéns para a clase media, e concibía o socialismo coma o herdeiro do seu enorme legado de liberdade, dereitos civís e prosperidade material. As súas reflexións sobre a Natureza e o medio-ambiente eran, case sempre, sorprendentemente avanzadas para o seu tempo. Non ten habido un campión máis incondicional da emancipación feminina, a paz mundial, a loita contra o fascismo ou a loita pola liberación das colonias que o movemento político ao que deu lugar a súa obra.

tense noticia dun pensador máis terxiversado?

Terry Eagleton
Marx had a passionate faith in the individual and a deep suspicion of abstract dogma. He had no time for the concept of a perfect society, was wary of the notion of equality, and did not dream of a future in which we would all wear boiler suits with our National Insurance numbers stamped on our backs. It was diversity, not uniformity, that he hoped to see. Nor did he teach that men and women were the helpless playthings of history. He was even more hostile to the state tan right-wing conservatives are, and saw socialism as a deepening of democracy, not as the enemy of it. His model of the good life was based on the idea of artistic self-expression. He believed that some revolutions might be peacefully accomplished, and was in no sense opposed to social reform. He did not focus narrowly on the manual working class. Nor did he see society in terms of two starkly polarized classes.
He did not make a fetish of material production. On the contrary, he thought it should be done away with as far as possible. His ideal was leisure, not labour. If he paid such unflagging attention to the economic, it was in order to diminish its power over humanity. His materialism was fully compatible with deeply held moral and spiritual convinctions. He lavished praise on the middle class, and saw socialism as the inheritor of its great legacies of liberty, civil rights and material prosperity. His view on Nature and the environment were for the most part startingly in advance of his time. There has been no more staunch champion of women’s emancipation, world peace, the fight against fascism or the struggle for colonial freedom than the political movement to which his work gave birth.
Was ever a thinker so travestied?
Terry Eagleton Why Marx Was Right (2011), pp.  238-239

sábado, 10 de novembro de 2012

o sorralleiro, william blake

cando miña nai morreu era moi novo,
e meu pai vendeume podendo a miña lingua
apenas berrar "sorralleiro! sorralleiro!"
así que limpo as vosas chemineas e durmo no sorrallo.

aí anda o pequeno Tom Dacre, que chorou cando a cabeza,
rizada coma costas de cordeiro, lle raparon: así que lle dixen
"cala, Tom!, non che importe, pois cando teñas a cabeza rapada
sabes que o sorrallo non che estragará eses cabelos brancos."

e así calou e esa mesma noite
cando durmía, tivo unha visión!
miles de sorralleiros, Dick, Joe, Ned e Jack
todos eles pechados en cadaleitos de negro.

e veu un Anxo cunha chave brillante,
e abriu os cadaleitos e liberounos;
brincan por unha planicie verde abaixo, rin, corren,
e lávanse nun río, e brilan ao Sol.

logo, espidos e brancos, cos sacos por aí,
suben ás nubes e xogan no vento;
e o Anxo díxolle a Tom, que se era un neno bo,
tería a Deus coma pai seu, e nunca lle faltaría ledicia.

e así espertou Tom; e erguémonos na noite,
e fomos traballar coas nosas bolsas e vasoiras.
inda que ía frío na mañá, Tom estaba ledo e non o sentía;
así que, se todos fan o seu traballo escusan temer mal.

nenos da rúa na época na que apareceu o poema
When my mother died I was very young,
And my Father sold me while yet my tongue
Could scarcely cry " 'weep! 'weep! 'weep! 'weep!"
So your chimneys I sweep, & in soot I sleep.

There's little Tom Dacre, who cried when his head,
That curl'd like a lamb's back, was shav'd: so I said
"Hush, Tom! never mind it, for when your head's bare
You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair."

And so he was quiet, & that very night
As Tom was a-sleeping, he had such a sight!
That thousands of sweepers, Dick, Joe, Ned, & Jack,
Were all of them lock'd up in coffins of black.

And by came an angel who had a bright key,
And he open'd the coffins & set them all free;
Then down a green plain leaping, laughing, they run,
And wash in a river, and shine in the Sun.

Then naked & white, all their bags left behind,
They rise upon clouds and sport in the wind;
And the Angel told Tom, if he'd be a good boy,
He'd have God for his father, & never want joy.

And so Tom awoke; and we rose in the dark,
And got with our bags & our brushes to work.
Tho' the morning was cold, Tom was happy & warm;
So if all do their duty they need not fear harm.

unha pequena cousa negra entre neve,
berrando "sorralleiro!" en clave de penar!
"onde están teu pai e túa nai? dime
"ambos subiron á igrexa a rezar."

"como estaba feliz sobre o páramo,
e sorría entre neve de inverno,
puxéronme roupa de morte
e ensináronme a cantar as notas de penar."

"e como son ledo e bailo e canto
pensan que non me fixeron mal
e foron cumprimentar Deus, o seu Crego e o Rei,
que da nosa miseria fan Ceo."


William Blake
A little black thing among the snow,
Crying " 'weep! 'weep!" in notes of woe!
"Where are thy father & mother? say?"
"They are both gone up to the church to pray."

"Because I was happy upon the heath,
And smil'd among the winter's snow,
They clothed me in the clothes of death,
And taught me to sing the notes of woe."

"And because I am happy and dance and sing,
They think they have done me no injury,
And are gone to praise God and his priest and king,
Who make up a heaven of our misery."

1. William Blake (1757-1827) publicou estes poemas (ambos chamados "The Chimney Sweeper") en 1789 (Songs of Innocence) e 1794 (Songs of Experience), respectivamente.

2. "sorralleiro" é unha variante dialectal empregada na provincia de Ourense, onde se preservan cousas xa desaparecidas noutras latitudes galegas. o termo sería "desenfeluxador." aquí non se utiliza porque en Cusanca falaban sempre do "sorrallo", non de "feluxe." ademais acábase antes.

3. os poemas fan referencia a un costume da época (socialmente aceptado) consistente na venda de nenos de catro ou cinco anos para limpar as chimineas. eran pequenos abondo para poder colarse polo oco abaixo e limpar o sorrallo que obturaba os condutos. nin que dicir ten que as súas condicións de traballo e vida eran absolutamente precarias.

4. a forma lírica empregada é o "couplet": pentámetros iámbicos con rima aa bb ... esta tradución non consigue respectar este aspecto do orixinal.

5. en vista da temática claramente social destes dous poemas, chámame a atención que se describa a William Blake coma poeta "romántico" e agora teñamos un concepto tan deturpado do que significa ser tal cousa. xa sabedes, aquelo de "e que eu son moi romántic@." ou o romanticismo era outra cousa ou o deturpamos ata facelo inservible.

6. T. S. Eliot (1888-1965), outro grande, pero noutra póla totalmente distinta, describiu a arte de Blake coma "desacougante." estes dous poemas, cada un por si e os dous conxuntamnete, explican de xeito gráfico como hai momentos e lugares onde se alían a relixión, a clase política dominante, e a "sensatez" para consolidar feitos absolutamente crueis e inxustificados para algúns en beneficio doutros; neste caso, neniños pequenos limpando chimineas para que outr@s poidan estar ao quente no inverno. isto pasou, non foi conto. William Blake.

7. o canto da "experiencia" é explícito e acusatorio mentres que o da "inocencia" é implítico e irónico; por exemplo, a figura do Anxo poría en cuestión a relixión oficial, contribuínte neto á explotación de nenos crédulos en vez de protexelos e rescatalos da inxustiza.

xoves, 8 de novembro de 2012

morte, w. b. yeats

placa lembrando o asasinato de Kevin O'Higgins
próximo ao lugar onde lle dispararon
nin temor nin esperanza acuden
ao animal moribundo;
home espera final
temendo e esperando todo;
moitas veces morreu,
moitas veces volveu erguer.
gran home orgulloso
facendo cara aos asasinos
burláse da
interrupción do alento;
coñece morte ata o óso--
home ten creado morte.

Sin miedo ni esperanza
aguarda el animal la muerte;
cuando a su fin se acerca el hombre,
todo lo espera y todo teme.
Muchas veces ha muerto,
y volvió a alzarse muchas veces.
Asentado en su orgullo el hombre grande
frente a los asesinos, escarnece
las amenazas de cortar su vida;
él conoce la muerte,
la conoce hasta el tuétano. Es el hombre mismo
quien la ha creado y la mantiene.

W. B. Yeats
Nor dread nor hope attend
A dying animal;
A man awaits his end
Dreading and hoping all;
Many times he died,
Many times rose again.
A great man in his pride
Confronting murderous men
Casts derision upon
Supersession of breath;
He knows death to the bone--
Man has created death.

1. "Death" publicouse en 1933, no libro The Winding Stair and Other Poems.

2. W. B. Yeats (Dublín, 1865 - Menton, Francia, 1939), recibiu o Nobel en 1923.

3. escribiu este poema en reacción ao asasinato do seu amigo e correlixionario Kevin O'Higgins, que participara, á súa vez, na execución de varios membros do IRA durante a guerra civil (xuño, 1922 - maio, 1923). Kevin comentáralle á súa dona: "alguén que teña feito o que fixen eu non pode esperar vivir moito;" de aí o verso "home creou morte."

4. sen embargo, o poema ten sido lido, quizás lexitimamente, sen ter en conta estas circunstancias. tense lido como falando da condición humana, o camiño ineludible cara a morte.

5. esta tradución (versión galega) é terriblemente mala porque, entre outras cousas,

- a. non respecta nin busca a rima do poema orixinal;
- b. nin os esquema de acentos: unha combinación de versos iámbicos (alternancia breve-longa ou tónica-átona) e versos trocaicos (alternancia longa-breve ou átona-tónica):

3 iámbicos - 3 trocaicos - 2 iámbicos - 2 trocaicos - 1 iámbico - 1 trocaico

exemplo de verso iámbico - nor dread nor hope att end (x-x-x-)
e de verso trocaico - dread ing+and hop ing all (-x-x-x);

- c. nin as dúas estruturas son - silencio (ou silencio - son) que se solapan no poema (a/ 6+4+2 versos) e (b/ 6+6 versos).

6. quizás Philip Roth lembraba o segundo verso deste poema cando decidiu o título dunha das súas novelas The Dying Animal. quizás non.

venres, 2 de novembro de 2012

el gadudelborgador


la entrevió en un mágico bosque, criatura
sensible que de nadie precisaba

y soñó con cómo se reuniría
allí, su compañero pronto sería

la atrajo al lugar que
conocía, mundo de jerarquía y poder

y allí comenzó ella a morir, tan
cierto como flor que marchita

su corazón comenzó a resquebrajarse dentro, el
sólo sabía una cosa que regalarle

devolverla a su mundo sensible
para que encontrase las ganas de vivir

y allí comenzó a florecer, vió
algo que nunca había visto

que tampoco era el de aquel mundo,
un gadudelborgador había sido.

que caminaba entre dos mundos,
finalmente había comprendido

y así fijaron su hogar en ningún mundo,
en frontera del mágico bosque.



Gadoodleborger

He spied her in a magic wood, a
sensing creature in need of none

And dreamed of how he’d join her
there, his partner she would soon become

He lured her back to the place he
knew, a world of hierarchy and of power

And there she then began to die, as
surely as a wilting flower

His heart began to break inside, he
knew only one thing to give

Return her to her sensing world,
that she might find the will to live

And there as she began to bloom, she
saw something he’d never seen

That he was not of that world either,
a Gadoodleborger, he had been.

That he walked between two worlds,
he now had finally understood

And so they made their home in
neither world, at the edges of the
magic wood.

NOTA FINAL
traducción a dos cabezas - Olga Lalín y xindiriz, por orden de Esther Medraño, alias "a xefa"
"gadoodleborger," enlace al blog de Donna Williams 

xoves, 1 de novembro de 2012

proposta de traballo "the tell-tale heart"

Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849), moito tempo un maldito, escribiu, entre outras cousas, numerosas historias curtas ou contos, precursor da literatura de terror e das historias de detectives.

"The Tell-Tale Heart" é unha desas historias que ten inspirado, á súa vez, outras historias, películas, obras de teatro, adaptacións de teatro e na radio ...

temos o texto completo desta historia ... comeza así:

TRUE! nervous, very, very dreadfully nervous I had been and am; but why WILL you say that I am mad? The disease had sharpened my senses, not destroyed, not dulled them. Above all was the sense of hearing acute. I heard all things in the heaven and in the earth. I heard many things in hell. How then am I mad? Hearken! and observe how healthily, how calmly, I can tell you the whole story.

It is impossible to say how first the idea entered my brain, but, once conceived, it haunted me day and night. Object there was none. Passion there was none. I loved the old man. He had never wronged me. He had never given me insult. For his gold I had no desire. I think it was his eye! Yes, it was this! One of his eyes resembled that of a vulture -- a pale blue eye with a film over it. Whenever it fell upon me my blood ran cold, and so by degrees, very gradually, I made up my mind to take the life of the old man, and thus rid myself of the eye for ever.

Now this is the point. You fancy me mad. Madmen know nothing. But you should have seen me. You should have seen how wisely I proceeded -- with what caution -- with what foresight, with what dissimulation, I went to work! I was never kinder to the old man than during the whole week before I killed him. And every night about midnight I turned the latch of his door and opened it oh, so gently! And then, when I had made an opening sufficient for my head, I put in a dark lantern all closed, closed so that no light shone out, and then I thrust in my head. Oh, you would have laughed to see how cunningly I thrust it in! I moved it slowly, very, very slowly, so that I might not disturb the old man's sleep. It took me an hour to place my whole head within the opening so far that I could see him as he lay upon his bed. Ha! would a madman have been so wise as this? And then when my head was well in the room I undid the lantern cautiously - oh, so cautiously - cautiously (for the hinges creaked), I undid it just so much that a single thin ray fell upon the vulture eye. And this I did for seven long nights, every night just at midnight, but I found the eye always closed, and so it was impossible to do the work, for it was not the old man who vexed me but his Evil Eye. And every morning, when the day broke, I went boldly into the chamber and spoke courageously to him, calling him by name in a hearty tone, and inquiring how he had passed the night. So you see he would have been a very profound old man, indeed, to suspect that every night, just at twelve, I looked in upon him while he slept.

Upon the eighth night I was more than usually cautious in opening the door. A watch's minute hand moves more quickly than did mine. Never before that night had I felt the extent of my own powers, of my sagacity. I could scarcely contain my feelings of triumph. To think that there I was opening the door little by little, and he not even to dream of my secret deeds or thoughts. I fairly chuckled at the idea, and perhaps he heard me, for he moved on the bed suddenly as if startled. Now you may think that I drew back - but no. His room was as black as pitch with the thick darkness (for the shutters were close fastened through fear of robbers), and so I knew that he could not see the opening of the door, and I kept pushing it on steadily, steadily.

un "postre" ... unha curta animada de 1953

venres, 26 de outubro de 2012

antonio muñoz molina: los traductores

Ilustración de Milo Winter de
Vinte mil leguas de viaxe submarina
Lo fundamental tiende a ser o a volverse invisible. Porque son fundamentales y porque su trabajo está en todas partes los traductores tienden a desvanecerse en la invisibilidad, y también porque cuando mejor hacen su oficio menos huellas quedan de él, hasta el punto de que parece que no hayan intervenido. Notamos que una traducción “nos chirría” de una manera parecida a como notamos el chirrido en los cambios de marchas que hace un conductor atacado o inexperto. Salta una palabra rara, un giro que visiblemente pertenece a otra lengua, y solo en ese momento recapacitamos de verdad en el hecho de estar leyendo una traducción. Que pensemos casi exclusivamente en el traductor cuando intuimos que se ha equivocado es una prueba simultánea del valor de ese trabajo y del poco reconocimiento que suele recibir, más todavía en unos tiempos en los que los textos circulan por Internet sin la menor constancia de su origen y en los que algunas personas imaginan que no hay mucha diferencia entre un traductor automático y un corrector automático de ortografía.

Pero quizás siempre ha sido así. Yo reparé en que la mayor parte de los libros que leía habían sido traducidos por alguien casi tan tardíamente como en que las películas tenían un director. Llevo toda la vida agradeciendo el efecto que tuvieron sobre mi imaginación y mi vocación las novelas de Julio Verne —no me acostumbro a escribir Jules—, pero nunca he pensado en las personas casi siempre anónimas que las traducían, seguramente con muy escaso beneficio, para las editoriales Bruguera, Sopena o Molino. La primera vez que supe el nombre de uno de los traductores de Verne fue cuando en los años de avaricia lectora de la universidad encontré las nuevas traducciones de algunas de sus mejores novelas que Alianza encargó a Miguel Salabert, que también tradujo de nuevo por aquellos años La educación sentimental y Madame Bovary. Pero quién habría traducido para mí sin que yo lo supiera El conde de Montecristo, o el Diario de Daniel o Papillon o Sinuhé el egipcio, por no ponernos exquisitos en el recuento de lecturas, o aquellas páginas de La peste que me parecía adecuado llenar de frases subrayadas, quizás con la esperanza de que alguien (del sexo femenino preferiblemente) tomara nota admirativa de mi agudeza intelectual.

Un amigo editor y poeta muy querido y monstruosamente sabio me aseguraba hace poco que ha decidido dejar de leer traducciones, porque ha llegado a la convicción de que le compensa más concentrarse en las literaturas de lenguas que ya conoce. Como en su caso éstas incluyen, que yo sepa, el castellano, el catalán, el francés, el alemán, el italiano, el latín y el inglés, tengo la impresión de que mi amigo no es muy representativo. Los demás, en mayor o menor medida, necesitamos la mediación continua de los traductores, y es un indicio de nuestra creciente penuria intelectual que en estos tiempos de abaratamientos y recortes se note tanto la baja consideración del oficio, la poca recompensa que obtienen los mejores y la prisa o el descuido con que se dejan pasar traducciones mediocres o directamente inaceptables. Curiosamente, también la mala traducción tiene sus admiradores, y su influencia literaria: cada vez más encuentra uno artículos de periódico e incluso páginas de novelas que están escritos como si fueran traducciones inexpertas del inglés, o incluso atroces doblajes de películas. Se ve que por los caminos de la ignorancia y el papanatismo estamos volviendo a los tiempos de mi adolescencia, cuando las estrellas del pop autóctono no tenían idea de inglés pero afectaban un acento americano al cantar en español.

Quien más depende del traductor, claro, es el escritor mismo. Eres en otra lengua exactamente lo que tu traductor haga de ti. En la mayor parte de los casos, y salvo ese amigo mío políglota que bien puede saber más lenguas de las que yo creo, o haber aprendido alguna más desde la última vez que hablé con él por teléfono (quizás tenga todavía más capacidad de hablar por teléfono que de aprender idiomas), uno está entregado de pies y manos: un día recibes un libro que debe de ser tuyo porque está tu nombre en la portada, y quizás tu foto en la solapa, pero eso que seguramente se parecerá mucho a lo que tú escribiste hace tiempo es del todo indescifrable, a veces tanto como si estuviera escrito en los caracteres de una antigua lengua extinguida. Hace falta un acto de fe: si uno sabe cuántas veces ha disfrutado, ha aprendido, se ha emocionado, leyendo traducciones del ruso o del japonés, o del hebreo, o del griego, cabe perfectamente la posibilidad de que ahora suceda el efecto inverso. Gracias al traductor ocurrirá un prodigio: lo que tú has escrito resonará en la conciencia de alguien en una lengua del todo ajena a ti, en lugares del mundo en los que no vas a estar nunca. Personas que te parecen tan ajenas como habitantes de la Luna resulta que son casi exactamente como tú. Puedo atestiguar que casi cada día, por ejemplo, Elvira Lindo recibe desde Irán cartas de lectores adolescentes y jóvenes que se han vuelto adictos a las aventuras de Manolito Gafotas en farsi. Lo más singular, sin dejar de serlo, resulta ser inteligible en casi cualquier parte. Algo se pierde siempre hasta en la mejor traducción, pero también se gana algo, o se fortalece algo, quizás el núcleo de universalidad que hay siempre en la literatura.

Durante un par de días, en Ámsterdam, he convivido con un grupo de traductores de mis libros: al holandés, al francés, al alemán. Algunos, de tanto trabajar conmigo durante años, ya eran amigos míos: Philippe Bataillon, Willi Zurbrüggen; a los demás los he ido conociendo estos días: Jacqueline Hulst, Ester van Buuren, Adri Boon, Erik Coenen, Frieda Kleinjan-van Braam, Tineke Hillegers-Zijlmans. Un mismo libro se vuelve otro ligeramente distinto en la imaginación de cada lector: pero esa multiplicación, esa metamorfosis, es más acentuada aún en el caso de cada traductor. El traductor es el lector máximo, el lector tan completo que acaba escribiendo palabra por palabra el libro que lee. Él o ella es quien detecta los errores y los descuidos que el autor no vio y los editores no corrigieron. Él se ve forzado a medir el peso y el sentido de cada palabra con mucho más escrúpulo que el novelista mismo. Willi Zurbrüggen utilizó un término musical para hablar de su trabajo: lo que más se parece a una traducción, sobre todo entre lenguas tan distintas como el español y el alemán, es la transcripción de una pieza musical.

Escuchaba hablar a estas personas, tan distintas entre sí, tan iguales en su devoción por el trabajo que hacen, y sentía gratitud y algo de remordimiento: una palabra que yo elegí por azar o instinto, una frase a la que dediqué tal vez unos minutos, les han podido causar horas o días de desvelo. Aprender sobre los límites de lo que puede ser traducido lo hace a uno más consciente de que también hay límites a lo que las palabras mismas pueden decir.

texto publicado en el país - babelia, 29.09.2012

venres, 5 de outubro de 2012

laxas e wikipedia, 2


Amber Heard - MARTÍN VIDAL DAPARTE
ancylomenes pedersoni - DAVID VÁZQUEZ CAGIDE
Andreas Thorkildsen - IAGO PAZOS ASTRAR
Angus Young - SILVIA VILLANUEVA VILLANUEVA
Augusto Fernández - RUBÉN RODRÍGUEZ GONZÁLEZ
Blairmore School - DANIEL FERREIRO VAAMONDE
Blessthefall - JORGE BREY FERNÁNDEZ
Santillana - JUAN CARLOS ORO VIDAL
Carly Rae Jepsen - LAURA FERNÁNDEZ OTERO
Cassandra Clare - MÓNICA NOVO CUÑARRO
Castle Combe - IVÁN GARCÍA FUENTES
Centro de Educación Secundaria Valdosta - JAVIER PEÑA FISTEUS
Conkers - LAURA TORREIRO DIÉGUEZ
Criminal Minds - IRIA MARTÍNEZ VALLADARES
Eddie Daniels - ANA BLANCO DEL VALLE
Ekaterina Gordeeva - NURIA CONDE MUÍÑOS
Elena Gheorghe - PAULA CASTRO SESTO
Ivano Balic - MARCOS OTERO VÁZQUEZ
JaVale McGee - DAVID RODRÍGUEZ PEÑA
John Terry - MARCOS UTRERA IGLESIAS
Joshua Redman - DAVID GARCÍA VAL
Madame Tussauds - ELENA CACHEDA PAMPÍN
Marcelo - CRISTIAN GONZÁLEZ LOIS
Marcos Mata - IRIA SÁNCHEZ CRESPO
Marija Serifovic - ADRÍAN MÉNDEZ VARELA
Mnozil Brass - ALBERTO GARCÍA DIÉGUEZ
Pedro de Aquila - LAURA IGLESIAS RODRÍGUE
Peter Phokas - LAURA IGLESIAS RODRÍGUEZ
pádel - ANDREA CALVIÑO LODEIRO
Qualla Boundary - ALBERTO BREA RAMOS
Robert Harting - DIEGO VIANA SOTO
Roger Taylor - MARTA BESTEIRO PEREIRO
río Trent - MARTA MILLARES OTERO
Sarah Wright - MARTA FONDEVILA RODRÍGUEZ
Sebastian Loeb - ROY GONZÁLEZ PUMEDA
Secondhand Serenade - TANIA FERRADÁS SOUTO
Snake River Plain - VALERIA VARELA LÓPEZ
Stephan Dohr - MARCOS AREÁN VARELA
Stephanie Gilmore - MARÍA CASTAÑO GÓMEZ
Stephanie Meyer - SANDRA REBOREDO CACHAFEIRO
Tero Pitkämäki - JOSÉ MANUEL LORENZO HERMIDA
Thom Brennaman - NEREA LÓPEZ SA
Vinayaki - SANDRA RODRÍGUEZ CASARES
Werner Goldberg - SERGIO SERANTES BLANCO
White Collar - NAZARET FERNÁNDEZ PARGA

proposta de traballo "-wolf"

a ver quen é o wolf que traduce isto

mércores, 3 de outubro de 2012

proposta de traballo "clients' guide to translation and interpreting"

How to find a professional translator


The best way to contact a professional translator is via a national or international translators' association. They may be able to provide lists of accredited professional translators who have the language skills and specialist knowledge you require.

The same associations often also have lists of reputable agencies. Alternatively, a large number of translation agencies are listed in paper and online business directories.

In recent years steps have been taken to develop international translation quality standards. In May 2006, following close collaboration with the European Union of Associations of Translation Companies (EUATC), the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) published standard EN 15038, which certifies high-quality translation services. This standard is gaining recognition worldwide and is reflected in the European Commission's freelance tender specifications. It regulates not only the translation process itself, but also all other stages, from the initial specification to delivery of the product.

How to get the best out of translators

1. Find somebody who specialises in translating the kind of text you have from the source language into the language you need. Translation skills cannot easily be ‘reversed’ to translate the other way round, nor can they be automatically transferred from one field to another.

2. It helps if you give translators all the reference documents they might need (such as similar documents translated earlier, technical documentation and glossaries). This will make for a better result and ensure consistency.

3. Always specify the purpose and target audience of the translation. (Is it just for information or will it be published? Will it be used for advertising?) If a translation is going to be published, your quality requirements will obviously be higher and the translator will have to check the translation more carefully. If a rough translation has been provided just for information, always consult the translator before using it for any other purpose.

4. Allow enough time for translation. Remember that good translators have many clients – you are not the only one. If time really is of the essence, don't expect the translation to come cheap: urgent documents cost more. The technicality of the document and the difficulty of the original language will affect the time required to translate it.

5. Give feedback on the translation. Then the next job the translator does for you will be even better.

How to find a professional interpreter

The best place to start is by looking on the website of a national or international association of conference interpreters. They often list professional interpreters who have the skills you require.

You can also contact an interpreting agency. They are often listed in business directories. You will have to negotiate the terms and conditions directly with the interpreter(s).

How to get the best out of interpreters

1. Describe your needs as accurately as possible.

2. Provide background documents in advance and any relevant information on the topics to be discussed. It is particularly helpful to send the agenda and the minutes of the previous meeting. Badly informed interpreters can't produce high-quality work.

3. Organisers of meetings should beware of the special constraints of interpreting, whatever type is chosen. The basic prerequisites are good acoustics and visibility in the meeting room, plus equipment which meets ISO standards 2603 and 4043.

4. Experience has shown that the communication skills of the participants are paramount when working in a multilingual meeting. The more languages used and the more complex the interpretation arrangements, the more this is true.

5. When you are chairing or speaking in a multilingual meeting it is useful to think about how to get your message across through interpretation. The interpreters are there to help the meeting proceed as if everyone were speaking the same language. For tips to help you get the best possible quality of communication in your meeting and detailed advice on how to organise a meeting, to speak and to use new conference facilities, see the web page http://scic.ec.europa.eu/europa/jcms/j_9/working-with-interpreters.

6. Guidelines for speakers in webcast events are given on the web page http://scic.ec.europa.eu/europa/jcms/c_6287/guidelines-for-speakers-in-a-webcastevent.

extract and picture from Translation and interpreting: Languages in action (2009) European Commission, pp. 12-13.

proposta de traballo "key translation tools"


Internet: although not designed as a translation aid, the Internet provides unparalleled opportunities for document and terminology searches.

Translation memories: systems that automatically search for text segments that have been translated before and stored in the memory. These translated segments are then inserted in the new translation and the translator can decide whether to keep, amend or discard them. This is particularly useful for repetitive or highly standardised documents.

Terminology banks: IATE (InterActive Terminology for Europe) is one example of an online terminology database. It contains around 9 million entries and was built up by the terminologists working in all the European institutions. Since 2007 it has been freely available on the Internet.

Machine translation: provides 'raw' translations of documents for certain language pairs, based on a system of bilingual dictionaries and linguistic analysis. It can help to save time, but requires great care; the output usually has to be corrected ('post-edited') and should always be carefully checked.

Dictionaries are still used by translators as language and terminology aids. Increasingly, the printed versions are being replaced by CD-ROMs or online dictionaries.

extract and picture from Translation and interpreting: Languages in action (2009) European Commission; page 15

proposta de traballo "work areas for translators and interpreters"

Translators and interpreters can work in the public sector (as national, European or international civil servants), in the private sector (as employees of commercial companies, translation agencies, etc.) and in community groups and voluntary organisations.

Translators and interpreters either work in-house as salaried employees or are self-employed as freelances. It is also possible to work as both a translator and an interpreter.

There are many types of translation: 'general', financial, legal, technical (medical, scientific, computers, etc.), literary, marketing material, news reports.

Translation does not always mean writing out the full text. Translators are often asked to produce written summaries of long documents or to give a quick verbal translation, so that the client can identify which passages in a lengthy document need translating word for word, or just get the general gist of the text.

Web translation is increasingly important in today's multimedia society. Texts for the web must be short, easy to read and drafted in a web-friendly style. Web translation often involves editing the original text.

Not to mention ... film subtitles, adverts, patents, software and computer games, cartoon strips.

The translator's job often involves other skills too, such as revision and editing, project management, prospecting for business and the ability to manage a company.

Conference interpreters are trained for three main types of work:

Consecutive interpreting: the interpreter sits with the delegates, listens to the speech and renders it at the end, in a different language, generally with the aid of notes. Although nowadays consecutive interpreting has been largely replaced by simultaneous, it is still useful for certain kinds of meetings (working lunches, field trips, etc.).

Simultaneous interpreting: the interpreter works in a sound-proofed booth with at least one colleague. The speaker in the meeting room talks into a microphone, and the interpreter listens in through a headset and repeats the message into a microphone almost simultaneously. The delegates in the meeting room select the channel offering the language of their choice.

Whispering: this is a form of simultaneous interpreting in which the interpreter sits (or stands) between the delegates and interprets directly into the listener's ear, in most cases without using any form of interpreting equipment.

Conference interpreters have to work in all kinds of situations: committees and conferences, discussions between heads of state, prime ministers, etc., business meetings and trade
negotiations.

Interpreters are often called into courts, hospitals, police stations, immigration offices, etc. This is known as 'public service interpreting'. In many countries it requires special qualifications because of the highly sensitive nature of the work. The Interpretation DG is currently looking at training needs for legal interpreters.

Sign-language interpreting: at conferences and meetings, interpreting between spoken languages and sign languages, used by the hearing-impaired community all over the world, is usually provided in simultaneous mode.

Not to mention ... TV and radio interviews, internet chats, videoconferences.

NOTE: ‘conference interpreter’ is a job title indicating a high level of skill. Conference interpreters don’t just work at conferences – they’re trained to work in all kinds of situations.

extract and picture from Translation and interpreting: Languages in action (2009) European Commission, pp. 10-11

proposta de traballo "difference between translation and interpreting"


Translators have to write texts that accurately convey the message and content of the original document and are grammatical and readable in the target language.

A good translation should read like a document in its own right. In many cases, for example legislation, the translation is 'authentic', which means it has the same legal force as the original version.

Faithful translations and interpretation reflect both the intention of the author or speaker and the style and register of the language used.

Interpreters provide spoken versions that convey, in another language, the message and intentions of the original speaker.

Unlike translators, interpreters are seen by their customers. They make face-to-face communication possible. Interpreters speak in the first person and become the voice of the speaker. They express the speaker's ideas and convictions with the same intensity and same shades of meaning, and without ever adding their own views or comments.

Both interpreters and translators must understand all the shades of meaning of the source language, so that they can reproduce it as faithfully and naturally as possible in the target language. This also requires excellent drafting skills and the ability to think on your feet!

Skills needed by professional translator and conference interpreters

The ability to understand is essential for both translation and interpreting. You can't express the content of a speech or text clearly unless you have understood it in the first place. So translators and interpreters must have a thorough knowledge of the source language, a well-developed ability to analyse and some knowledge of the subject-matter.

But understanding is not enough. Interpreters and translators must be able to re-express this information accurately and eloquently so it can be used by their target audience.

They must know how to find the right register for a given situation, for a document (written) or speech (oral).

Translators' skills

Excellent drafting skills, in order to produce texts that don't sound like translations.

Thoroughness and accuracy, so that they remain true to the spirit of the original and all the information it contains. Specialised translation is impossible without terminology and document research and liaison with specialists in the field.

Translators must have an enquiring mind, a desire to learn and a sense of initiative. Translators often have to work under pressure (to short deadlines), so they must be adaptable and able to get their priorities right and organise their work.

Freelances must also have the ability to market and manage their business.

Increasingly, translators must be computer-literate and able to use a range of software applications to optimise their work.

Interpreters' skills

Conference interpreters must be effective communicators, at least as spellbinding as the speakers.

Conference interpreters must keep rigorously up to date with world affairs and the areas in which they work. Increasingly, interpreters must be computer-literate and able to use a wide range of research tools. When the microphone is on, there is no time to look things up in dictionaries and encyclopaedias: the interpreter has to be on the ball.

Interpreters work without a safety net and must possess the gifts of intuition and flexibility, coupled with rapid reactions that enable them to tackle any subject by any speaker without being thrown.

Interpreters must possess diplomatic skills and be sensitive to the context and the situation in which they're speaking if they are to convey the speaker's intention correctly.

extract from  Translation and interpreting: Languages in action European Commission  (2009), pp. 6-7

sábado, 29 de setembro de 2012

asociacións internacionais de tradutor@s


AITC - association internationale des traducteurs de conférence


CEATL - European Council of Literary Translators' Associations


CIUTI - conférence internationale permanente d'instituts universitaires de traducteurs et interprètes


Clearing House - Unesco Clearing House for Literary Translation




EAMT - European Association for Machine Translation


EST - European Society for Translation Studies


EUATC - European Union of Associations of Translation Companies


GALA - Globalization and Localization Association


IATIS - International Association for Translation and Intercultural Studies

tradución e interpretación na Comisión Europea

www.free-press-release.com
EUR - Lex (lexislación comunitaria)

base de datos terminolóxica IATE


EMT (master en tradución a nivel europeo)


EMCI (master en interpretación a nivel europeo)